It’s a critical engine performance component, so if it fails or begins to … This replaces the coil with a short circuit. It helps the car’s computer regulate the ratio of air to fuel. The thermal membrane sensor is also capable of measuring flow in both directions, which sometimes occur in pulsating situations. Look for cuts or other damage. Laminar flow conditions are present in a gas when the Reynolds number of the gas is below the critical figure. Carefully inspect the terminals in each connector for proper installation. The outlet pressure is less than 35 kPa (5 psi). Instead of outputting a constant voltage modified by a resistance factor, this type of MAF outputs a frequency which must then be interpreted by the ECU. Laminar flow elements measure the volumetric flow of gases directly. The ECM continues to attempt to control the actuator. Although types and designs of sensor may differ to enhance engine performance under particular conditions, the mass air flow sensor is a critical component in the supply of information to the on-board computer establishing the proper fuel levels to … The ECM uses the signals to determine the mass of the clean gas that is flowing into the turbocharger. In situations where owners use oiled-gauze air filters, it is possible for excess oil to coat the MAF sensor and skew its readings. Turbo pressure reached … A snapshot is triggered. The viscosity of the fluid must be compensated for in the result. An example is 1994 Infiniti Q45. Repair any problems. They use this as an input signal to the vehicle’s main computer. A snapshot is triggered. The ECM uses the signals to determine the mass of the clean gas that is flowing into the turbocharger. Figure 5.23: Impact-based mass flow yield monitor performance in uncontrolled data ..... 97 Figure 5.24: Average impact-based mass flow sensor response in uncontrolled data..... 98 Figure 5.25: DEM analysis of the modified fountain auger with simulated grain In automotive applications, air density varies with the ambient temperature, altitude and the use of forced induction, which means that mass flow sensors are more appropriate than volumetric flow sensors for determining the quantity of intake air in each cylinder. The flapper moves in order to vary the amount of clean gas that flows into the turbocharger. The sensor group consists of these components: Venturi - The venturi is a restriction in the duct between the DPF and the turbocharger. Both approaches are used almost exclusively on electronic fuel injection (EFI) engines. It is not used for measuring the air flow per se. This sensor sometimes employs a mixture screw, but this screw is fully electronic and uses a variable resistor (potentiometer) instead of an air bypass screw. Run the "Air System Verification Test". It is designed to meet the instantly increased demand for respiratory applications.The flow of air and oxygen at rates from -10slm to 240slm is measured with excellent accuracy and extremely high speed. Replace valve assembly (4) if the flapper rotates smoothly. A virtual refrigerant mass flow sensor (VRMF) uses a mathematical model to estimate flow rate using low-cost measurements Verify that the problem is resolved. Not all HFM systems output a frequency. The sensor pictured on the right, converts air flowing past a heat sensing element into an electrical signal. Air changes its density with temperature and pressure.    , CGI Mass Flow Rate : High - Moderate Severity (2)    . 520192-16 : CGI Mass Flow Rate : High - Moderate Severity (2) The flow of clean gas is consistently excessive. A hot wire burn-off cleaning circuit is employed on some of these sensors. Verify that the CGI flow is within the acceptable range during the test. Inspect the Hoses for the Sensors. , These vortices can either be read directly as a pressure pulse against a sensor, or they can be made to collide with a mirror which will then interrupt or transmit a reflected light beam to generate the pulses in response to the vortices.  It is commonly found in late 1980s and early 1990s fuel-injected vehicles. The best way to track it down is to follow the small CGI lines from under the turbos that connect to the big CGI line. Since around 2012, some MAF sensors include a humidity sensor.. The mass airflow sensor measures the mass of the air that is entering the vehicle, and sends the information to the car’s computer management system. It indicates a low cgi gas supply. At the heart of every mass flow sensor is a MEMS based calorimetric microsensor, which measures the gas flow using the thermal measurement principle. Most everytime I see this code there is a leak or opening in the CGI line that runs from the DPF. The inlet pressure is significantly less than the engine oil pressure reading on Cat ET. original equipment manufacturers. They measure the amount of air entering the engine, or the air flow. When air flows past the wire, the wire cools, decreasing its resistance, which in turn allows more current to flow through the circuit, since the supply voltage is a constant. Providing that the incoming flow is laminar, the wake consists of an oscillatory pattern of Kármán vortices. A snapshot is triggered. The code is logged. The flapper is connected to the actuator's shaft. The air-mass sensor is used to measure the intake air mass. Repair: Carefully clean the venturi. Repair: Replace the damaged parts. CGI Mass Flow Rate : High - Least Severe (1)    , The flow of clean gas is consistently excessive. CGI Differential Pressure - This is the pressure drop across the venturi. During normal engine operation, the ECM commands the flapper to a position that results in the desired flow of clean gas. This screw controls the air-fuel mixture by letting a metered amount of air flow past the air flap, thereby leaning or richening the mixture. Repair: Make the necessary repairs. CGI Absolute Pressure - This is the absolute pressure of the clean gas in the duct. This system then controls the amount of fuel that is injected into the cylinders, so that the ideal fuel-to-air ratio is achieved. A burn-off relay applies a high current through the platinum hot wire after the vehicle is turned off for a second or so, thereby burning or vaporizing any contaminants that have stuck to the platinum hot wire element. 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